The first part of a two-part work in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series on sleep disorders Edited by P. Montagna, Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy and Sudhansu Chokroverty, MD, FRCP, FACP, Professor of Neurology, New York Medical College, Valhalla; Clinical Professor of Neurology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ; Associate Chairman of Neurology, Chairman of Neurophysiology, and Director, Center of Sleep Medicine, Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Center, NY Table of Contents: SECTION 1: History of sleep medicine History of sleep medicine. SECTION 2: Basic science and methods Normal sleep- recording and scoring techniques. Assessment of daytime sleepiness. Actigraphic monitoring of sleep and circadian rhythms. Video Recordings and Video Polysomnography. Functional neuroimaging in sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. SECTION 3: Basic mechanisms of sleep The Phylogeny of Sleep. Ontogeny of EEG-sleep from neonatal through infancy periods. Neurobiology of waking and sleeping. Neurobiology of REM sleep. Neurochemistry of sleep - an overview of animal experimental work. Molecular neurobiology of sleep. Manifestations and functional implications of sleep homeostasis. Thermoregulation in wakefulness and sleep in humans. Cytokines in immune function and sleep regulation. Endocrine and metabolic changes during sleep. Sleep, memory and molecular neurobiology. SECTION 4: Clinical aspects of sleep disorders Epidemiology of sleep disorders. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular physiology in sleep. Cardiovascular diseases and sleep apnea. Alterations in gastrointestinal functioning during sleep. Sleep and genitourinary systems: physiology and disorders. Sleep enuresis. Respiratory physiology in sleep and wakefulness. Obstructive sleep apnea: diagnosis, risk factors and pathophysiology. Upper airway resistance syndrome. Central sleep apnea. Positive pressure treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Medical and surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, including dental appliances. Non-invasive positive ventilation in the treatment of sleep related breathing disorders. Sleep and pulmonary diseases. Sleep-associated respiratory disorders and their psycho-behavioral consequences in children. Sudden death in infants during sleep. Neurobiology and the neurological basis of dreaming. Abnormal dreams and nightmare disorders. Sleep and psychiatric diseases. Sleep-related eating disorder. Alcohol, toxins and medications as a cause of sleep dysfunction. Sleep, pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Women and sleep. Normal and abnormal sleep in the elderly.