The second of three volumes on stroke in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series (Series Editors: Michael J. Aminoff, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA; François Boller, Bethesda, USA; Dick F. Swaab, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands), covering manifestations of stroke and causes of stroke. Until a few years ago, strokes were considered ‘experiments of nature' that provided help in understanding the functional anatomy of the brain, but for which little could be done in terms of therapeutic intervention and prevention. These three volume record how this has now profoundly changed and cover advances in our understanding of the biochemical background of strokes coupled with advances in fields as diverse as epidemiology, genetics, neuroimaging, interventional radiology, surgery, clinical psychology and most particularly prevention and management. The aim is to provide both basic researchers with the foundation for new investigations and clinicians a source of reference to enable them to gain a thorough knowledge and understanding of the clinical features and management of the many neurological manifestations of stroke. Stroke Part I: Basic and epidemiological aspects : Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab) Stroke Part III: Investigation and management : Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab) Marc Fisher , MD, Professor of Neurology and Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA CONTENTS Section 4: Manifestations of stroke: Topographic classification of ischemic stroke. Identification, risks and treatment of transeint ischemic attacks. Medical complications of acute stroke. Anterior circulation syndromes. Posterior circulation strokes. Lacunes and lacunar syndromes. Hemorrhagic stroke syndromes: clinical manifestations of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eye syndromes and the neuro-ophthalomology of stroke. Post-stroke seizures. Stroke-related psychiatric disorder. Vascular dementia. "Silent" cerebral infarcts and microbleeds. Spinal strokes. Section 5: Causes of stroke: Extracranial and intracranial atheroma, and artery-to-artery embolism. Cardio-embolic stroke. Cervical artery dissections. Intracerebral hemorrhage. Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral venous thrombosis. Illicit drug use/abuse and stroke. Stroke, migraine and headache. Infections and stroke. Vasculitis and stroke. Hematological diseases and stroke. Stroke related to systemic illness and complicated surgery. Rare causes of stroke.