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Spanning over half a century of investigation into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, this volume provides comprehensive coverage of a broad range of topics in REM sleep biology. World renowned researchers and experts are brought together to discuss past and current research and to set the foundation for future developments. Key topics are covered in six sections from fundamental topics (historical context and general biology) to cutting-edge research on neuronal regulation, neuroanatomy and neurochemistry, functional significance and disturbance in the REM sleep generating mechanism. A reference source for all aspects of REM sleep research, it also incorporates chapters on neural modelling, findings from non-human species and interactions between brain regions. This is an invaluable resource, essential reading for all involved in sleep research and clinical practice. Features • A comprehensive source covering all aspects of REM sleep research with impressive depth and scope • Interdisciplinary approach integrates varied aspects of research - suitable for use by sleep researchers and clinicians alike • Includes recent developments from experts in neural modelling Table of Contents Part I. REM Sleep as a Unique Arousal State – Historical Context: 1. The sleep-dream state – historic and philosophic perspectives 2. REM sleep and dreaming 3. REM sleep and dream sleep: are they identical? Exploring the conceptual developments in the Upanishads and the present knowledge based on neurobiology of sleep 4. The discovery of REM sleep: the death knell of the passive theory of sleep 5. REM sleep and dreaming: the nature of the relationship Part II. General Biology: 6. The ontogeny and function(s) of REM sleep 7. Evolutionary perspectives on the function of REM sleep 8. A systems level approach to human REM sleep 9. REM sleep regulation: circadian, homeostatic and non-REM sleep-dependent determinants Part III. Neuronal Regulation: 10. Understanding REM sleep: clues from brain lesion studies 11. Preoptic and basal forebrain modulation of REM sleep 12. Amygdalar regulation of REM sleep 13. Pontomedullary mediated REM sleep atonia 14. Phenomenology and function of myoclonic twitching in developing rats 15. Pontine-wave (P-wave) generator: a key player in REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation 16. Hippocampal theta rhythm of REM sleep 17. Respiration during REM sleep and its regulation 18. Modulation of REM sleep by non-REM sleep and waking areas in the brain Part IV. Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry: 19. Aminergic influences in the regulation of basic REM sleep processes 20. REM sleep regulation by cholinergic neurons: highlights from 1999 to 2009 21. GABAergic modulation of REM sleep 22. Glutamatergic regulation of REM 23. The role of tuberomammillary nucleus histaminergic neurons, and of their receptors, in the regulation of sleep and waking 24. Hypocretinergic system: role in REM sleep regulation 25. Neuropeptides and REM sleep 26. Adenosine and glycine in REM sleep regulation 27. Changes in neurotransmitter levels in relation to REM sleep for its regulation 28. Pontine areas inhibiting REM sleep (PAIRS) 29. Neuronal models of REM sleep control: evolving concepts Part V. REM Sleep: Functional Significance: 30. Significance of deprivation studies: does REM sleep propensity/debt increase with deprivation? 31. Modulation of body core temperature in NREM and REM sleep 32. Sleep-related hippocampal activation: implications for spatial memory consolidation 33. The role of REM sleep in memory consolidation, enhancement and integration 34. The role of REM sleep in emotional brain processing 35. REM sleep loss, oxidative damage and apoptosis 36. Role of REM sleep in maintaining neuronal excitability and its possible mechanism of action 37. Comparison of REM sleep deprivation methods: role of stress and validity of use 38. REM sleep in patients with depression 39. Proteins and neuropeptides in REM sleep regulation and function Part VI. Disturbance in REM Sleep Generating Mechanism: 40. Narcolepsy and REM sleep 41. REM sleep and dreams: relationship to anxiety, psychosomatic and behavioural disorders 42. REM sleep and emotion regulation 43. Neural modeling for cooperative/competitive regulation of REM sleep with NREM sleep and wakefulness 44. The selective mood regulatory theory of dreaming: an adaptive, assimilative and experimentally based theory of dreaming Index.