This volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series includes chapters dealing with general aspects of headache (socioeconomic in particular), the contribution made by the biological sciences to furthering understanding of the pathophysiology of headache, and the managemnt of headache and related problems. The main body of the book is devoted to primary and secondary headaches. The book ends with some chapters intended to clarify a series of controversial issues: pathogenetic (chronobiological, endocrinological and neuroimaging correlates), nosographic (ie migraine, vertigo and headache in children) and treatment-related (new advances). By Giuseppi Nappi, IRCSS Mondino, Pavia and Rome, Italy and Michael Moskowitz, MD, Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Neurosurgery and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA CONTENTS Section 1: General aspects: 1. Epidemiology of headache. The social impact and burden of headache. Section 2: Biological science of headache: Biological sciences related to headache. Pharmacology. Biological science of headache channels. Genetics of headaches. The neurobiology of migraine. Experimental models of migraine. Section 3: Management of headache: Management of headache patients. Headache diaries and calendars. Implementing the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn (ICHD-II). Triggers of migraine and tension-type headache. Acute headache in the emergency department. Therapeutic guidelines for headache. The role of prevention. Managing migraine associated with sensitization. Botulinum neurotoxin in the treatment of headache disorders. The approach to the difficult patient. Ethical issues in headache management. The role of lay associations. Section 4: Primary headache: Migraine: Migraine: general aspects. Pathophysiology of migraine. Migraine - clinical neurophysiology. Migraine: clinical diagnostic criteria. Migraine and reproductive life. Acute treatment of migraine. Migraine: preventive treatment. Tension-type headache: Tension-type headache: introduction and diagnostic criteria. Tension-type headache: mechanisms. The clinical neurophysiology of tension-type headache. Treatment of tension-type headache. Cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: Cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: general aspects. Pathophysiology of cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology in cluster headache and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: diagnostic criteria. Preventive treatment of cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Neurostimulation therapy in intractable headaches. Other primary headache: Other primary headache - general aspects. Primary stabbing headache. Primary cough headache, primary exertional headache, and primary headache associated with sexual activity. Hypnic headache. Primary thunderclap headache. Hemicrania continua. New daily persistent headache. Section 5: Secondary headache: Secondary headaches: introduction. Headache attributed to head or neck trauma. Headache attributed to stroke, TIA, intracerebral haemorrhage, or vascular malformation. Headache attributed to arteritis, cerebral venous thrombosis, and other vascular intracranial disturbances. Headache attributed to carotid or vertebral artery pain. Headache attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorder. Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal. Headache attributed to infections: nosography and differential diagnosis. Headache attributed to disorders of homeostasis. Headache or facial pain attributed to disorders of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth, or other facial or cranial structures. Headache attributed to psychiatric disorders. Cranial neuralgias. Surgical treatment of cranial neuralgias. Central pain in the face and head. Section 6: Special issues: Chronobiological correlates of primary headaches. Headache: endocrinological aspects. Headache in children. Migraine vertigo (vestibular migraine). Pharmacological migraine provocation: a human model of migraine. Neuroimaging in headache. Current and emerging therapies for migraine prevention and treatment.