The third of three volumes on stroke in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series (Series Editors: Michael J. Aminoff, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA; François Boller, Bethesda, USA; Dick F. Swaab, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands), covering investigation, management and therapy of stroke. Until a few years ago, strokes were considered ‘experiments of nature' that provided help in understanding the functional anatomy of the brain, but for which little could be done in terms of therapeutic intervention and prevention. These three volume record how this has now profoundly changed and cover advances in our understanding of the biochemical background of strokes coupled with advances in fields as diverse as epidemiology, genetics, neuroimaging, interventional radiology, surgery, clinical psychology and most particularly prevention and management. The aim is to provide both basic researchers with the foundation for new investigations and clinicians a source of reference to enable them to gain a thorough knowledge and understanding of the clinical features and management of the many neurological manifestations of stroke. Stroke Part I: Basic and epidemiological aspects : Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab) Stroke Part II: Clinical manifestations and pathogenesis : Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab) Marc Fisher , MD, Professor of Neurology and Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA CONTENTS Section 6: Investigation of stroke: Assessment of a patient with stroke: neurological examination and clinical rating scales. Imaging of brain parenchyma in stroke. Imaging intra- and extracranial vessels: computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. The interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Ultrasound investigations of the intra- and extracranial vessels. Laboratory studies in the investigation of stroke. Imaging functional recovery from stroke. Practical and comprehensive approaches to evaluating stroke patients: today and tomorrow Section 7: Management and therapy: General principles of acute stroke management. Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke. Acute stroke units and teams. Approaches to neuroprotective and reperfusion injury therapy. Endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, unruptured cerebral aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformations. Methodology of acute trials in stroke. The future of stroke prevention by risk factor modification. Antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention. Carotid endarterectomy, stenting, and other prophylactic interventions. Stroke recovery and rehabilitation.