This second edition of the book provides up-to-date information on new drugs, new proven HIV prevention interventions, a new chapter on positive prevention, and current HIV epidemiology. This definitive text covers all aspects of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, from basic science to medicine, sociology, economics and politics. It has been written by a highly respected team of South African HIV/AIDS experts and provides a thoroughly researched account of the epidemic in the region. * Edited by: S. S. Abdool Karim, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa * Edited by: Q. Abdool Karim, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Features • This second edition of the definitive text covers all aspects of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, from basic science to medicine, sociology, economics and politics Table of Contents Part I. Birth of a Rapidly Growing Epidemic: 1. Introduction 2. Overview of the book 3. HIV infection in South Africa: the evolving epidemic 4. HIV incidence rates in South Africa Part II. The Virus, the Human Host and Their Interactions: 5. Viral structure, replication, tropism, pathogenesis and natural history 6. HIV diagnostics 7. HIV-1 genetic diversity 8. Cellular immunity to HIV: a synthesis of responses to preserve self Part III. HIV Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies: 9. Reducing sexual risk behaviours: theory and research, successes and research 10. Barrier methods 11. Mother-to-child transmissions (MTCT) of HIV-1 12. Sexually transmitted infections 13. Safe blood supplies 14. Intravenous drug use in South Africa 15. Positive prevention interventions 16. New prevention strategies under development and investigation Part IV. Focal Groups for Understanding the HIV Epidemic: 17. Heterosexual transmission of HIV - the importance of a gendered perspective in HIV prevention 18. Young people and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: prevalence of infection, risk factors and social context 19. Female sex workers 20. Population movement and the spread of HIV in southern Africa Part V. The Impact of AIDS: 21. Impact of AIDS - the health care burden 22. The impact of AIDS on the community 23. The impact of ethics 24. The economic impact of AIDS 25. AIDS-related mortality in South Africa 26. Picking up the pieces: the end of AIDS denialism and its aftermath Part VI. Treating HIV: 27. Tuberculosis and HIV 28. Prevention of opportunistic infections in adults 29. Nutritional prophylaxis 30. Challenges in managing AIDS in South Africa 31. Antiretroviral therapy 32. The challenges of implementing antiretroviral treatment Part VII. What Does the Future Hold?: 33. Models and trends 34. The future of the HIV epidemic in South Africa.