Fourth Edition brings this popular guide thoroughly up to date with the latest MRI findings, techniques, and applications. For its Fourth Edition, the acclaimed MRI: Basic Principles and Applications has been rigorously revised, enabling readers to quickly master the principles and take advantage of all the latest MRI applications. Among the new materials are fresh and updated discussions on 3D imaging, real-time imaging, cardiac imaging, and parallel acquisition techniques. In addition, readers will find dozens of brand-new images to illustrate key concepts. Moreover, clinical protocols have been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect current methodologies. Throughout the book, readers will find easy-to-follow coverage of all the latest findings, technologies, and techniques, including: * Nephrotoxic effects of gadolinium-based contrast media * New scan techniques, including radial scanning * Parallel acquisition and cardiovascular imaging techniques * New applications, including spin tagging and diffusion tensor imaging * 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla scanning * Hardware innovations, including large-scale array coils * New motion compensation techniques With its clear explanations and ample illustrations, this Fourth Edition maintains all the hallmarks of the previous edition that have made this book a fixture in MRI labs around the world. Students and practitioners—from physicians to radiologists to technicians—will gain a full, accurate understanding of the underlying physics and the clinical applications of MRI, all with a minimum of mathematical formulas and technical details. From Reviews of the Third Edition ". . . successful in transferring key ideas in an undaunting and progressive manner . . . thoroughly deserves a place on the bookshelf."—NMR in Biomedicine, Vol 17(4), June 2004 ". . . it will reward the reader with an understanding of the principles underpinning nuclear magnetic resonance."—Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, May 2003 Mark A. Brown, Richard C. Semelka Table of Contents 1. Production of Net Magnetization. 2. Concepts of Magnetic Resonance. 3. Relaxation. 3.1. T1 Relaxation and Saturation. 3.2. T2 Relaxation, T2∗ Relaxation and Spin Echoes. 4. Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 4.1. Slice Selection. 4.2. Readout or Frequency Encoding. 4.3. Phase Encoding. 4.4. Data Acquisition Techniques. 5. Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 5.1. Frequency Selective Excitation. 5.2. Composite Pulses. 5.3. Raw Data and Image Data Matrices. 5.4. Raw Data and k Space. 5.5. Reduced k–Space Techniques. 5.6. Reordered k–Space Techniques. 5.7. Other k–Space Filling Techniques. 5.8. Phased–Array Coils. 5.9. Parallel Acquisition Techniques. 6. Pulse Sequences. 6.1. Spin Echo Sequences. 6.2. Inversion Recovery Sequences. 6.3. Gradient Echo Sequences. 6.4. Echo Planar Imaging Sequences. 6.5. Magnetization–Prepared Sequences. 7. Measurement Parameters and Image Contrast. 7.1. Intrinsic Parameters. 7.2. Extrinsic Parameters. 7.3. Parameter Tradeoffs. 8. Signal Suppression Techniques. 8.1. Spatial Presaturation. 8.2. Magnetization Transfer Suppression. 8.3.Frequency–Selective Saturation. 8.4. Non–Saturation Methods. 9. Artifacts. 9.1. Motion Artifacts. 9.2. Sequence/Protocol–Related Artifacts. 9.3. External Artifacts. 10. Motion Artifact Reduction Techniques. 10.1. Acquisition Parameter Modification. 10.2. Triggering–Gating. 10.3. Flow Compensation. 10.4. Radial–based Motion Compensation. 11. MR Angiography. 11.1. Time–of–Flight MRA. 11.2. Phase Contrast MRA. 11.3. Maximum Intensity Projection. 12. Advanced Imaging Applications. 12.1. Diffusion. 12.2. Perfusion. 12.3. Functional Imaging. 12.4. Ultra–High Field Imaging. 12.5. Noble Gas Imaging. 13. MR Spectroscopy. 13.1. Additional Concepts. 13.2. Localization Techniques. 13.3. Spectral Analysis and Postprocessing. 13.4. Ultra–High Field Spectroscopy. 14. Instrumentation. 14.1. Computer/Image Processor. 14.2. Magnet System. 14.3. Gradient System. 14.4. Radiofrequency System. 14.5. Data Acquisition System. 14.6. Summary of System Components. 15. Contrast Agents. 15.1. Intravenous Agents. 15.2. Oral Agents. 16. Safety. 16.1. Magnetic Field. 16.2. Cryogens. 16.3. Gradients. 16.4. RF Power Deposition. 16.5. Contrast Media. 17. Clinical Protocols. 17.1. General Principles of Clinical MR Imaging. 17.2. Examination Design Considerations. 17.3. Protocol Considerations for Anatomical Regions. 17.4. Recommendations of Specific Sequences and Clinical Situations. 18. References.