A Textbook of Modern Toxicology is a unique resource that provides both students and practitioners with a wide-ranging, accessible overview of the discipline. Suitable for courses in environmental, pharmacological, medical, and veterinary toxicology, this essential text features chapters written by experts who address a range of key topics. The Fourth Edition includes additional chapters on new approaches to toxicology - molecular methods (-omics: toxicogenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), bioinformatics, and systems biology – and continues the legacy of its predecessors to provide up-to-date insights into acute toxicity and chemical carcinogenesis, organ toxicity, in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing, ecological risk assessment, and many other areas of toxicology that help foster a solid comprehension of the field. Also featured in the Fourth Edition are end-of-chapter questions and a Solutions Manual available separately for academic adopters. CONTENTS Part I. Introduction. 1. Introduction (Ernest Hodgson). 1.1 Definition and Scope. 1.2 Relationship to Other Sciences. 1.3 A Brief History of Toxicology. 1.4 Dose-Response Relationships. 1.5 Sources of Toxic Compounds. 1.6 Movement of Toxicants in the Environment. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 2. Introduction to Biochemical and Molecular Methods in Toxicology (Ernest Hodgson, Gerald A. LeBlanc, Sharon A. Meyer and Robert C. Smart). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Cell Culture Techniques. 2.3 Molecular Techniques. 2.4 Immunochemical Techniques. 2.5 Proteomics. 2.6 Metabolomics. 2.7 Bioinformatics. 2.8 Summary and Conclusions. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part II. Classes of Toxicants. 3. Exposure Classes, Toxicants in Air, Water, Soil, Domestic and Occupational Settings (W. Gregory Cope). 3.1 Air Pollutants. 3.2 Water and Soil Pollutants. 3.3 Occupational Toxicants. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 4. Classes of Toxicants: Use Classes (W. Gregory Cope and Ernest Hodgson). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Metals. 4.3 Agricultural Chemicals (Pesticides). 4.4 Food Additives and Contaminants. 4.5 Toxins. 4.6 Solvents. 4.7 Therapeutic Drugs. 4.8 Drugs of Abuse. 4.9 Combustion Products. 4.10 Cosmetics. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part III. Toxicant Processing In Vivo. 5. Absorption and Distribution of Toxicants (Ronald E. Baynes and Ernest Hodgson). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Cell Membranes. 5.3 Mechanisms of Transport. 5.4 Physicochemical Properties Relevant to Diffusion. 5.5 Routes of Absorption. 5.6 Toxicant Distribution. 5.7 Toxicokinetics. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 6. Metabolism of Toxicants (Ernest Hodgson and Randy L. Rose). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Phase I Reactions. 6.3 Phase II Reactions. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 7. Reactive Metabolites (Ernest Hodgson and Randy L. Rose). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Activation Enzymes. 7.3 Nature and Stability of Reactive Metabolites. 7.4 Fate of Reactive Metabolites. 7.5 Factors Affecting Toxicity of Reactive Metabolites. 7.6 Reactive Oxygen Species. 7.7 Examples of Activating Reactions. 7.8 Summary and Conclusions. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 8. Chemical and Physiological Influences on Xenobiotic Metabolism (Andrew D. Wallace and Ernest Hodgson). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Nutritional Effects. 8.3 Physiological Effects. 8.4 Comparative and Genetic Effects. 8.5 Chemical Effects. 8.6 Environmental Effects. 8.7 Summary and Conclusions. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 9. Elimination of Toxicants (Gerald A. LeBlanc). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Transport. 9.3 Renal Elimination. 9.4 Hepatic Elimination. 9.5 Respiratory Elimination. 9.6 Conclusion. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part IV. Toxic Action. 10. Acute Toxicity (Gerald A. LeBlanc). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Acute Exposure and Effect. 10.3 Dose-Response Relationships. 10.4 Non-Conventional Dose-Response Relationships. 10.5 Alternative Methods. 10.6 Mechanisms of Acute Toxicity. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 11. Chemical Carcinogenesis (Robert C. Smart). 11.1 DNA Damage and Mutagenesis. 11.2 General Aspects of Cancer. 11.3 Human Cancer. 11.4 Classes of Agents That Are Associated with Carcinogenesis. 11.5 General Aspects of Chemical Carcinogenesis. 11.6 Oncogenes. 11.7 Tumor Suppressor Genes. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 12. Teratogenesis (Jill A. Barnes and Ida M. Washington). 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Overview of Embryonic Development. 12.3 Principles of Teratogenesis. 12.4 Mechanisms of Teratogenesis. 12.5 Future Considerations. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part V. Organ Toxicity. 13. Hepatotoxicity (Andrew D. Wallace and Sharon A. Meyer). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Susceptibility of the Liver. 13.3 Types of Liver Injury. 13.4 Mechanisms of Hepatotoxicity. 13.5 Examples of Hepatotoxicants. 13.6 Metabolic Activation of Hepatotoxicants. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 14. Nephrotoxicity (Andrew D. Wallace and Joan Tarloff). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Factors Contributing to Nephrotoxicity. 14.3 Examples of Nephrotoxicants. 14.4 Summary. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 15. Toxicology of the Nervous System (Bonita L. Blake). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 The Nervous System. 15.3 Toxicant Effects on the Nervous System. 15.4 Neurotoxicity Testing. 15.5 Summary. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 16. Reproductive System (Heather Patisaul). 16.1 Introduction. 16.2 The-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis. 16.3 Male Reproductive Physiology. 16.4 Disruption of Male Reproduction by Toxicants. 16.5 Female Reproductive Physiology. 16.6 Disruption of Female Reproduction by Toxicants. 16.7 Summary. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 17. Endocrine System (Gerald A. LeBlanc). 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Endocrine System. 17.3 Endocrine Disruption. 17.4 Incidents of Endocrine Toxicity. 17.5 Conclusion. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 18. Respiratory Toxicity (James C. Bonner). 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Anatomy and Function of the Respiratory Tract. 18.3 Toxicant-Induced Lung Injury, Remodeling and Repair. 18.4 Occupational and Environmental Lung Diseases. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 19. Immunotoxicity (MaryJane Selgrade). 19.1 Introduction. 19.2 The Immune System. 19.3 Immune Suppression. 19.4 Classification of Immune-Mediated Injury (Hypersensitivity). 19.5 Effects of Chemicals on Allergic Disease. 19.6 Other Issues: Autoimmunity, and the Developing Immune System. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part VI. Applied Toxicology. 20 Toxicity Testing (Ernest Hodgson and Helen Cunny). 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Experimental Administration of Toxicants. 20.3 Chemical and Physical Properties. 20.4 Exposure and Environmental Fate. 20.5 In Vivo Tests. 20.6 In Vitro and Other Short-Term Tests. 20.7 Ecological Effects. 20.8 Risk Analysis. 20.9 The Future of Toxicity Testing. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 21. Forensic and Clinical Toxicology (Sharon A. Meyer and Bonita L. Blake). 21.1 Introduction. 21.2 Forensic Toxicology. 21.3 Clinical Toxicology. 21.4 Analytical Methods in Forensic and Clinical Toxicology. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 22. Prevention of Toxicity (Ernest Hodgson). 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Legislation and Regulation. 22.3 Prevention in Different Environments. 22.4 Education. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 23 Human Health Risk Assessment (Ronald E. Baynes). 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 Risk Assessment Methods. 23.3 Non-Cancer Risk Assessment. 23.4 Cancer Risk Assessment. 23.5 PBPK Modeling. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part VII. Environmental Toxicology. 24. Toxicant Analysis (Chris Hofelt). 24.1 Introduction. 24.2 Environmental Sample Collection Methods. 24.3 Analytical Techbiques. 24.4 Quantification, Quality Assurance and Quality Control. 24.5 Summary. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 25. Basics of Environmental Toxicology (Gerald A. LeBlanc and David B. Buchwalter). 25.1 Introduction. 25.2 Environmental Persistence. 25.3 Bioaccumulation. 25.4 Toxicity. 25.5 Conclusion. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 26. Transport and Fate of Toxicants in the Environment (Damian Shea). 26.1 Introduction. 26.2 Sources of Toxicants to the Environment. 26.3 Transport Processes. 26.4 Equilibrium Partitioning. 26.5 Transformation Processes. 26.6 Environmental Fate Models. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 27. Ecological Risk Assessment (Damian Shea). 27.1 Introduction. 27.2 Formulating the Problem. 27.3 Analyzing Exposure and Effects Information. 27.4 Characterizing Risk. 27.5 Managing Risk. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Part VIII. New Approaches in Toxicology. 28. Perspectives on Informatics in Toxicology (Seth Kullman, Carolyn J. Mattingly, Joel N. Meyer and Andrew Whitehead). 28.1 Introduction. 28.2 Transcriptomics. 28.3 Annotation Resources. 28.4 Genome Sequencing, Re-sequencing and Genotyping. 28.5 Epigenomic Profiling. 28.6 Computation Toxicology. 28.7 Informatics Tools in Toxicology. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. 29. Future Considerations (Ernest Hodgson). 29.1 Introduction. 29.2 Risk Assessment. 29.3 Risk Management. 29.4 Risk Communication. 29.5 In Vivo Toxicity. 29.6 In Vitro Toxicity. 29.7 Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology. 29.8 Development of Selective Toxicants. 29.9 Summary and Conclusions. Suggested Reading. Sample Questions. Glossary. Index.