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Cardiac Mechano-Electric Feedback and Arrhythmias offers a thoroughly reviewed compendium written by leading experts in the field on the mechanism and consequences of cardiac mechano-electrical coupling. Its coverage ranges from stretch-activated ion channels to mechanically induced arrhythmias and mechanical interventions for heart rhythm correction. Information is grouped into logical sections, from molecular mechanisms, to cell, tissue and whole organ responses, right through to patient-based observations and insight emerging from clinical trials. The information provided carefully highlights both consensus insight and current shortcomings in our understanding of cardiac mechano-electric coupling. The book has been thoroughly revised and expanded since publication of the first edition in 2005, extensively updated to reflect recent developments in the field, and now offers a more balanced view of mechano-electrical interactions in the heart and develops a more clinical focus. Written with the advanced medical student and junior doctor in mind, it will also offer interesting new insight for the established physician with an interest in cardiac arrhythmogenesis and heart rhythm management. * Covers all aspects of the heart's ability to change rate or rhythm in response to mechanical stimulation in one integrated source, with comprehensive, cross-referenced material. * Highly illustrated throughout, including an 8-page colour plate section, to aid understanding * Written by the key experts in the field, and includes essential follow-on reading in the highly selective references New to this edition * Completely revised and significantly extended edition * Increased by over 50%, from 42 chapters to 65 * Contains completely new section reviewing insight from clinical trials Peter Kohl , Chair in Cardiac Biophysics and Systems Biology at the UK National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK and a Senior Fellow of the British Heart Foundation, Frederick Sachs , Distinguished Professor and Chair of Biophysics at State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo NY, USA, and Michael R. Franz , Director of Arrhythmia Research at the Veteran Medical Center and an Adjunct Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA CONTENTS Basic Science, Section I: Sub-Cellular Mechanisms of Cardiac Mechano-Electric Coupling 1: Boris Martinac and Anna Kloda: Evolutionary origins of stretch-activated ion channels 2: Frederick Sachs: SACs in the heart 3: Eric Honoré and Amanda Patel: The mechano-gated K2P channel TREK-1 in the cardiovascular system 4: Clive M. Baumgarten, Wu Deng, and Frank J. Raucci, Jr.: Cell VolumeDSSensitive Ion Channels and Transporters in Cardiac Myocytes 5: Gentaro Iribe and Peter Kohl: Non-sarcolemmal stretch-activated channels 6: Catherine E. Morris: Pacemaker, potassium, calcium, sodium: stretch modulation of the voltage-gated channels 7: Sarah Calaghan: Role of caveolae in stretch-sensing: implications for mechanoelectric coupling 8: Thomas M. Suchyna and Frederick Sachs: The membrane/cytoskeleton interface and stretch-activated channels 9: Michiel Helmes and Henk Granzier: Cardiomyocyte stretch sensing 10: John Jeremy Rice and Donald M. Bers: The response of cardiac muscle to stretch: Calcium and force 11: Jean-Luc Balligand and Chantal Dessy: Stretch effects on second messengers 12: Kevin Kit Parker: Functional implications of Myocyte Architecture Basic Science, Section II: Cellular Manifestations of Cardiac Mechano-Electric Coupling 13: Patricia J. Cooper and Ursula Ravens: Mechanical modulation of pacemaker electrophysiology 14: Michael R. Franz: Mechano-electric coupling in working cardiomyocytes: diastolic and systolic effects 15: Chang Ahn Seol, Won Tae Kim, Jae Boum Youm, Yung E. Earm, and Chae Hun Leem: Mechano-sensitivity of pulmonary vein cells: implications for atrial arrhythmogenesis 16: Henk E.D.J. ter Keurs, Ni Diao, Nathan P. Deis, Mei L Zhang, Yoshinao Sugai,. Guy Price, Yuji Wakayama, Yutaka Kagaya, Yoshinao Shinozaki, Penelope A Boyden, Masahito Miura, Bruno DM Stuyvers: Heterogeneity of sarcomere length and function as a cause of arrhythmogenic calcium waves 17: Kenneth R. Laurita: Cellular mechanisms of arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans 18: André G. Kléber and Jeffrey E. Saffitz: Remodeling of gap junctions in ventricular myocardium: Effects of cell-to-cell adhesion, mediators of hypertrophy and mechanical forces 19: Troy A. Baudino and Thomas K. Borg: The origin of fibroblasts, ECM and potential contributions to cardiac mechano-electric coupling 20: Leslie Tung and Susan A. Thompson: Advantages and pitfalls of cell cultures as model systems to study cardiac mechanoelectric coupling Basic Science, Section III: Multi-cellular manifestations of mechano-electric coupling 21: Vladimir S. Markhasin, Alexander Balakin, Yuri Protsenko, and Olga Solovyova: Activation sequence of cardiac muscle in simplified experimental models: Relevance for cardiac mechano electric coupling 22: Peter Kohl: 23: Michael R. Franz and Frank Bode: Acute stretch effects on atrial electro-physiology 24: Christian Bollensdorff and Max J Lab: Stretch effects on potassium accumulation and alternans in pathological myocardium 25: Robert W. Mills, Adam T. Wright, Sanjiv M. Narayan, and Andrew D. McCulloch: The effects of wall stretch on ventricular conduction and refractoriness in the whole heart 26: Darwin Jeyaraj and David S. Rosenbaum: Mechanical triggers of long-term ventricular electrical remodeling 27: Granfeldt, Jiang, Shi, and Vinten-Johansen: Mechanisms of mechanical pre- and postconditioning Translational Science, Section IV: Integrated model systems to study specific cases of cardiac MEC and arrhythmias 28: Ulrich Schotten: Mechano-electric coupling in chronic atrial fibrillation 29: Omer Berenfeld: Mechanically induced pulmonary vein ectopy - insight from animal models 30: Ed White, David Benoist, and Olivier Bernus: Regional variation in mechano-electric coupling: The right ventricle 31: Frank Bode and Michael R. Franz: Mechanical induction of arrhythmia in the ex-situ heart: insight into Commotio Cordis 32: Larissa Fabritz and Paulus Kirchhof: Arrhythmias in murine models of the mechanically impaired heart 33: Flavia Ravelli and Michela Masè: Studying cardiac mechano-sensitivity in man 34: Vicky Y. Wang, Martyn P. Nash, Ian J. LeGrice, Alistair A. Young, Bruce H. Smaill and Peter J. Hunter: Mathematical models of cardiac structure and function: mechanistic insights from models of heart failure 35: Elizabeth M. Cherry: Mathematical models of human atrial mechano-electrical coupling and arrhythmias 36: Natalia A. Trayanova, Viatcheslav Gurev, Jason Constantino, Yuxuan Hu: Mathematical models of ventricular mechano-electric coupling and arrhythmia Clinical Relevance, Section V: Pathophysiology of cardiac mechano-electric coupling: general aspects 37: Peter Taggart and Peter Sutton: Load dependence of ventricular repolarisation 38: Rainer Schimpf and Martin Borggrefe: Is the U wave in the electrocardiogram a mechanoelectrical phenomenon? 39: John V. Tyberg: Mechanical modulation of cardiac function: Role of the pericardium 40: Geoffrey Lee; Prashanthan Sanders; Joseph B. Morton and Jonathan M. Kalman: Mechanically-induced electrical remodelling in human atrium 41: JM van Opstal, Y Blaauw, and HJGM Crijns: Drug effects and atrial fibrillation: potential and limitations 42: Eugene A. Sosunov, Evgeny P. Anyukhovsky, and Michael R. Rosen: Stretch as a mechanism linking short- and long-term electrical remodeling in the ventricles 43: Michiel J Janse and Ruben Coronel: Volume and pressure overload and ventricular arrhythmogenesis 44: Masatoshi Yamazaki and Jérôme Kalifa: Stretch effects on fibrillation dynamics Clinical Relevance, Section VI: Pathophysiology of cardiac mechano-electric coupling: specific cases 45: Mark S. Link: Commotio cordis: Sudden death from blows to the chest wall 46: Takeshi Aiba and Gordon F. Tomaselli: Repolarization changes in the synchronously and dys-synchronously contracting failing heart 47: Steven N. Singh and Pamela Karasik: Ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure: Link to hemodynamic load 48: Annerie M.E. Moers and Paul G.A. Volders: Mechanical heterogeneity and aftercontractions as trigger of torsades des pointes 49: Ruben Coronel, Natalia Trayanova, Xiao Jie, and Michiel J. Janse: Stretch-induced arrhythmias in ischaemia Clinical relevance, Section VII: Mechano-electric coupling as a mechanism involved in therapeutic interventions 50: Tommaso Pellis and Peter Kohl: Antiarrhythmic effects of acute mechanical stimulation 51: Peter Taggart and Peter Sutton: Termination of arrhythmias by haemodynamic unloading 52: Derek J. Dosdall, Harish Doppalapudi, and Raymond E. Ideker: Mechanical modulation of defibrillation and resuscitation efficacy 53: Paul J. Joudrey, Roger J. Hajjar and Fadi G. Akar: Anti- and pro-arrhythmic effects of cardiac assist device implantation 54: Nico H. L. Kuijpers and Frits W. Prinzen: Anti- and pro-arrhythmic effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy Clinical relevance, Section VIII: Evidence for mechano-electric coupling from clinical trials 55: Matthias Hammwöhner and Andreas Goette: Evidence for mechano-electric coupling from clinical trials on AF 56: Paulus Kirchhof and Günter Breithardt: Evidence for mechano-electric coupling from clinical trials in heart failure 57: Hayden Huang, Angeliki Asimaki, Frank Marcus, and Jeffrey E. Saffitz: Mechano-electrical coupling and the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 58: Nico R.L. Van de Veire and Jeroen J. Bax: Evidence for mechano-electric coupling from clinical trials on cardiac resynchronization therapy 59: Cesare M. Terracciano, Michael Ibrahim, Manoraj Navaratnarajah and Magdi H. Yacoub: Mechano-electric coupling in patients treated with ventricular assist devices: insights from individual cases and clinical trials Outlook, Section IX: Novel directions in cardiac mechano-electic coupling 60: Fanjie Meng and Frederick Sachs: Measuring strain of structural proteins in vivo in real time 61: David G. Allen and Marie L. Ward: Roles of SAC beyond M-E Transaction 62: Elliot J. Howard and Jeffrey H. Omens: Distributions of myocyte stress, strain and work in normal and infarcted ventricles 63: Elisa E. Konofagou and Jean Provost: Evolving concepts in measuring ventricular strain in the canine and human hearts: non-invasive imaging 64: Douglas A. Hettrick: Evolving concepts in measuring ventricular strain in the human heart: impedance measurements 65: Ed White: Mechanosensitive channel blockers: A new class of antiarrhythmic drugs?