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Forensic science has been described as "the body of scientific principles and technical methods applied to criminal investigation to prove the existence of a crime and help justice determine the perpetrator of the crime and his/her modus operandi." (Pierre Margot) This encyclopedia provides a complete resource to help students, researchers, and practitioners access basic information on topics peripheral to their own areas. It is a repository of core information for refreshing the memory and will provide material to which teachers can direct students preparing coursework. It covers the core theories, methods, and techniques employed by forensic scientists, including pathologists, and the applications of these in forensic analysis, from computer fraud to disaster scene. Collection of evidence from the crime scene is very important, and description of collection and preparation of samples is an important part of the content. Jay A. Siegel, Director, Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program, Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA and Pekka J. Saukko, Chairman, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland Table of Contents: Anthropology/Odontology Animal Effects on Bone History of Forensic Anthropology Introduction Taphonomy Recovery and Retrieval: Forensic Archaeology Post Mortem Interval Species: Human vs. Non-human Sexing Aging the Dead and the Living Stature and Build Ancestry Facial Approximation Personal Identification Bone Pathology and Ante Mortem Trauma Biomechanics of Bone Trauma Bone Trauma Identification of the Living Odontology Behavioral Autoerotic death: Criminological aspects Criminal Profiling Detection of Deception Interpretation Investigative Psychology Lie Detection Modus Operandi Offender Signature Overview Phonetics Forensic Linguistics Psychological Autopsies Psychiatry and Psychology: Overview Psychiatry Psychology Serial Killing Stalking Biology/DNA Overview/History Basic Principles DNA Extraction and Quantitation Short Tandem Repeats Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms miniSTRs Mixture Interpretation Low Copy Number DNA Testing X-chromosome markers Mitochondrial DNA Non-Human DNA Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics Biology/DNA Next generation sequencing technologies Statistical Analysis Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis Significance Future Analytical Techniques 1: DNA mass spectrometry DNA Databanks Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMS) Disaster Victim Identification Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, BSAG Forensic Laboratory Efficiency & Funding Bayesian Networks Internet accessible databases: YHRD, EMPOP, etc. International Society of Forensic Sciences (ISFG) Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA testing for externally visible characteristics Missings Persons (NameUS) Biology/DNA/RNA mRNA and microRNA for body fluid identification Biology/DNA/Entomology Overview Biology/DNA/Wildlife DNA and endangered species Biology/DNA/Botany Cannabis DNA Biology/DNA Microbiology and Bio-terrorism Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse Clandestine Laboratories Analysis Classification Designer Drugs Chemistry/Trace/Explosives Clandestine Laboratories Improvised Explosive Devices Analysis Commercial Military Improvised Explosives Mechanisms of Explosion Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence Overview Microchemistry Chemistry/Trace/Fibers Overview Transfer Persistence & Recovery Protocols for Examination Identification and Comparison Textile and Fiber Damage Fiber Microscopy Colour Analysis Interpretation of Fiber Evidence Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation Chemistry of Fire Physics/Thermodynamics Thermal Degradation Analysis of Fire Debris Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis Chemistry/Trace/Glass Overview Glass Analysis Interpretation of Glass Evidence Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating Overview Architectural Paint Automotive Paint Forensic Paint Analysis Interpretation of Paint Evidence Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences Crime Scene Considerations Soils Forensic Geosciences Botany Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues Overview, Analysis and Interpretation Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes Overview, Analysis and Interpretation Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis Overview, Analysis and Interpretation Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns Overview, Analysis and Interpretation Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry Overview, Analysis and Interpretation Chemistry/Trace Stomach Content Analysis Digital Evidence Child Pornography Cellular Phones Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging Overview Digital Evidence Digital Image and Enhancement Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics Audio Enhancement and Authentication Digital Evidence/Black boxes and security cameras Aircraft Flight Data Recorders Documents Analytical Methods Document Dating Forgery/Counterfeits Handwriting Ink Analysis Paper Analysis History Overview Engineering Forensic Engineering / Accident Reconstruction / Biomechanics of Injury - Philosophy, Basic Theory and Accident Reconstruction Methodology / Computer Methods in Accident Reconstruction Air Bag Technology / Occupant Kinematics / Biomechanics of Injury Electronic Data Recorders (EDR’s, black boxes) Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents Railroad Accident Investigation Analysis of Digital Evidence Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses Biomechanics of Human Gait - Slip and Fall Analysis Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis Materials Analysis Investigation and analysis of electrical accidents Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death Blunt trauma Burns and scalds Asphyctic deaths - Overview and pathophysiology Strangulation Traumatic and postural asphyxia, physical restraint Immersion deaths Sharp trauma Systemic response to trauma Sudden natural death in adults SIDS Gunshot wounds Forensic Medicine/Clinical Clinical forensic medicine - Overview Domestic violence Sexual Violence Child abuse Defense wounds Self-inflicted injuries Elder abuse Torture Forensic age estimation Hyperthermia/Hypothermia Death from electrocution and lightning Neonaticide Identification Deaths in custody Suicide Traffic injuries and deaths Airplane crashes and other mass disasters Forensic Medicine/Pathology Forensic pathology - principles and overview External postmortem examination Autopsy Histopathology Early and late postmortem changes Post Mortem Time Since Death Vital reactions and wound healing Postmortem imaging Deaths associated with medical procedures Foundations History / Forensic Sciences Basic Principles of Forensic Sciences Legal Classification of Evidence Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Classical-Frequentist Approach Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Bayesian Analysis Interpretation / Forensic Intelligence Interpretation / Identification - Individualization Interpretation / Semiotics & Heuristics: Inferences used by Forensic Scientists Interpretation / The Comparative Method Forensic Classification of Evidence Foundations/Fundamentals Measurement Uncertainty Investigations Collection and Chain of Evidence Contamination Forensic Intelligence Analysis Fingerprints Major Incident Scene Management Packaging Preservation Recording Recovery of Human Remains Scene Analysis and Reconstruction Suspicious Deaths Evidence Recovery at the Fire-scene Fire Scene Inspection Methodology Fire-scene Patterns Types of Fire Counterfeit Goods Counterfeit Currency Identity Theft Forensic Accounting Payment Cards From Crime Scene to Court Explosions Legal Innocence Project DNA Exonerations Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony Forensic Laboratory Reports Legal Aspects of Forensic Science Legal Systems - Adversarial and Inquisitorial When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond History of law/forensics International Courts and Forensic Science Management/Administration of Forensic Science International Organisations and Cooperation Principles for Field/Police Organisation Management/Quality in Forensic Science Principles of Quality Assurance Accreditation Certification Standard Methods Risk Management Effectiveness Health and Safety Observer Bias Issues/Sequential Unmasking Methods Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry Chromatography: Basic Principles Gas Chromatography Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatographic Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Mass Spectrometry Analytical Light Microscopy Microscopy (Electron) Presumptive Chemical Tests Non-chromatographic Separation Techniques Spectroscopic Techniques Spectroscopy: Basic Principles Field deployable devices Chemometrics Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy) Friction Ridge Print Examination Authomated methods, including Criminal Records Administration AFIS Chemistry of Print Residue Identification and Classification Sequential Treatment and Enhancement Standards of Proof Visualization Pattern Evidence/Firearms Humane Killing Tools Laboratory Analysis Range Residues Pattern Evidence/History Fingerprint Sciences Pattern Evidence Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement Plastic Bag Striations Bare Footprint Marks Footprints Palm Prints Footwear Marks Serial Number Shotgun Ammunition on a Target Physical match Tools ACE-V Professional Accreditation of educational programs Certification and licensing Continuing professional development Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science Ethics Research and publishing Training to competency NAS American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) Australian-New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS) American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) International Association for Identification (IAI) National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) Senior Managers of Australian-New Zealand Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL) Toxicology/Alcohol Blood Urine and Body Fluids Breath Congener Analysis Interpretation Post-Mortem Metabolites Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse Blood Oral Fluid Drug Facilitated Crimes Drugs and Driving Drugs in Hair Postmortem Blood Urine Drugs Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse Toxicology History Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs Overview and Applications Sports Drug Testing Volatile Substances and Inhalants Interpretation of Results Methods of Analysis-Initial Testing Methods of Analysis-ConfirmatoryTesting Post-Mortem Specimens Herbal psychoactive substances Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals - contamination Behavioral toxicology Post-mortem toxicology: artifacts
Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
February 14, 2013
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