This timely resource examines all relevant aspects of interventional nephrology, from the history of nephrology to the principles governing the latest vascular access techniques. Heavily illustrated with full-color procedural drawings and featuring an easy-to-follow design, the book includes contributions from many leading authorities in the field whose insights combine to form an unprecedented, clinically rigorous survey of interventional nephrology. Interventional Nephrology opens with an instructive look at the origins of hemodialysis access; an overview of the history of interventional nephrology in the U.S. and abroad; and clinically relevant coverage of vascular access outcomes. The high-yield coverage continues with a probing assessment of ethics, public policy, and practice guidelines, illuminating such pivotal topics as industry partnerships and conflicts of interest. The principles that support interventional nephrology techniques are also extensively reviewed, encompassing everything from vascular mapping to peritoneal dialysis catheter removal, while the following section delves into the key surgical aspects of vascular access. Finally, the book provides useful perspectives on how political and policy affairs impact current practice. FEATURES Illustrated with precise full-color drawings and radiographs that highlight both normal and vascular anatomy and clarify the management of vascular access problems Streamlined design and helpful pedagogy, including chapter-opening learning objectives, numerous tables, and concept-clarifying figures Complete overview of the core principles underlying interventional nephrology practice and techniques, covering vascular mapping, monitoring and surveillance of arteriovenous access, venous angioplasty, tunneled catheters, renal ultrasonography, and much more Discussion of vascular access in special populations and the role of pharmacologic agents in preserving vascular access provides evidence-based insights that are pertinent to the everyday practice of interventional nephrology In-depth emphasis on the surgical aspects of vascular access reviews sites, types, and creation of arteriovenous fistulae; secondary arteriovenous fistula; and surgical options for vascular anomalies Forward-thinking coverage of basic and translational science considers future directions in vascular access science; flow dynamics, maturity, and access failure; neointimal hyperplasia; pharmacologic prevention of access dysfunction; and device innovation Arif Asif, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director of Interventional Nephrology University of Miami, Miami,FL Anil K. Agarwal M.D., F.A.C.P., FASN Professor of Medicine Director, Interventional Nephrology The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Alexander Yevzlin, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Director of Interventional Nephrology University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI Steven Wu, M.D. Director of Interventional Nephrology Medical Director of MGH HD Vascular Access Program Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Gerald Beathard, M.D. Table of contents I. History of Interventional Nephrology: Birth of a New Specialty 1. Origins of Hemodialysis Access: The Scribner Experience 2. History of Interventional Nephrology in the United States 3. History of Interventional Nephrology from a Global Perspective 4. Epidemiology of Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: A Global Perspective II. Ethics, Public Policy and Practice Guidelines 5. Academic Societies, Industry Partnerships, and Conflict of Responsibility 6. The American Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology and Collaboration with other Professional Societies and Organizations 7. Training in Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology 8. Developing an Academic Curriculum for Interventional Nephrology Training 9. Accreditation and Certification in Interventional Nephrology III. Principles of Practice and Techniques 10. Basic Anatomy for Dialysis Vascular Access 11. Vascular Mapping 12. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: Types, Characteristics, and Epidemiology 13. Vascular Access Monitoring and Surveillance 14. Physical Examination of the Hemodialysis Access 15. Early and Late Fistula Failure 16. Arteriovenous Graft Stenosis and Thrombosis 17. Venous Angioplasty 18. Arterial Intervention in Hemodialysis Access and Chronic Kidney Disease 19. Stent Placement in Hemodialysis Access 20. Accessory Veins: Recognition and Management 21. Pseudoaneurysm and Aneurysm Formation 22. Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy 23. Hand Ischemia 24. Peripheral Arterial Disease 25. Temporary Hemodialysis Catheters 26. Tunneled Catheter Designs and the Placement Conundrum 27. Catheter Dysfunction- Recirculation, Thrombosis, and Fibroepithelial Sheath 28. Exit-Site, Tunnel Infection, and Catheter-Related Bacteremia 29. Catheter Lock Solutions 30. Surface Coatings for Tunneled Catheters 31. Cardiac Rhythm Devices in Renal Patients 32. Central Vein Stenosis 33. Vascular Access in Special Populations 34. The Role of Pharmacologic Agents in Preserving Vascular Access 35. Sedation and Analgesia for Endovascular Procedures 36. Adverse Reactions to Radiocontrast Agents in Vascular Access Centers 37. Radiocontrast and Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Advantages and Disadvantages 38. Fluroscopy Basics: Theory, Equipment, and Use in Vascular Access Intervention 39. Fluoroscopy Clinical: Radiation Exposure and Safety 40. Complications of Endovascular Dialysis Access Procedures 41. Kidney Biopsy 42. Renal Ultrasonography 43. Emerging Role of Vascular Ultrasound in Arteriovenous Dialysis Access 44. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion 45. Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Procedures 46. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Removal 47. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dialysis Access Interventions IV. Surgical Aspects of Vascular Access 48. Sites and Types of Arteriovenous Fistulae 49. Creation of Arteriovenous Fistulae by Nephrologists 50. Secondary Arteriovenous Fistula 51. Surgical Options for Arteriovenous Access in Patients with Exhausted Veins 52. Hemodialysis Access-Induced Distal Ischemia (HAIDI): Surgical Management 53. Etiology and Management of Cephalic Arch Stenosis V. Basic and Translational Science 54. Vascular Access Science-What Does the Future Hold? 55. Flow Dynamics, Maturity, and Access Failure 56. Neointimal Hyperplasia 57. Pharmacological Approaches to vascular Access Dysfunction 58. Device Innovation VI. Political and Policy Affairs 59. Establishing a Vascular Access Center 60. Coding and Reimbursement for Vascular Access Procedures: past, Present, and Future 61. Quality Assurance and Outcomes Monitoring 62. Research Opportunities in Interventional Nephrology: Why, What, and How!